Leuko, Thrombotic, Hb? So you finally understand the values in your blood
High cholesterol levels and a lot of leukocytes – what does that actually mean? Many patients confuse the values of your Blood counts. This doesn’t have to be. FOCUS Online explains what is the meaning of the values of the small and large blood image.
- Too many white blood cells indicate an infection.
- That’s why the doctor takes a second tube of blood.
- The blood test does not replace examination by a doctor.
You feel weak, or your neighbor that you are pretty pale? Then the path to the house doctor is usually the first. Most of the time he takes blood. Because the price gives important information about possible diseases.
How often and when should you leave a blood make?
Also before surgery, and some routine tests, it is important to know how the blood of the patient is composed. Clemens Wendtner, chief physician of the clinic for Hematology, Oncology, immunology, palliative care, infectiology and tropical medicine at Klinikum Schwabing in Munich, pointed out, however, that there is “no General rule or strict recommendations,” a regular blood test.
Blood test: These three types, there are
What blood is made of the image, the doctor decides. It is the small, large and the subject-specific the blood is.
Small Blood Image
The small blood picture was examined, only the three parameters, from which the blood is composed of:
- Leuko or WBC (white blood cells): leukocytes
The white blood cells are part of the immune system. Already in the case of mild bacterial infections, their value is increased. The leukocyte-fast also in case of allergies and attacks of Gout in the height.
The value is increased over a longer period of time is very strong, it can be a sign of a leukemia. “It is important to carry out further investigations with a differential blood picture and other tests are essential here,” says Clemens Wendtner. Too little white blood cells give an indication of poisoning or viral infections.
- Thrombo: Thrombocyte
The platelets take care of the hemostasis. After a surgery, or high blood loss patients have higher values. In the case of a low number of platelets, the risk of bleeding. Sudden onset of bleeding gums, or dot-shaped hemorrhages, for example, in the area of the lower leg, can give an indication of low platelets.
In addition to hemostasis, there are medications which have on the blood clotting an important influence. Patients taking a blood-thinning medication such as marcumar, which coagulates the blood slower. To avoid dangerous bleeding, regular medical check-up is very important. The physician observes during the examination, whether the coagulation values still in the normal range.
- Ery, or RBC (red blood cells): erythrocytes
The red blood cells for oxygen transport in the body. After a long hike in the high mountains, a pronounced Stress over several days, and also in smokers, the value is increased, typically.
A shortage of red blood cells occurs, for example, in the case of a blood poverty (anemia), or during pregnancy.
The other values of the small blood picture will give more accurate information about the condition of the red blood cells:
- Hb: Hemoglobin
The red blood pigment that binds oxygen to the red blood cells. He drops as soon as the number of red blood cells, as these parameters are related. Smoking and a stay in the height lead to high values. Low values indicate a renal disease or inflammatory gastrointestinal disease.
- Hct/Hct: Hematocrit
The value provides information about the volume fraction of red blood cells. The higher it is, the easier it is for blood clots develop. Because then the blood is thicker. This is the case, there is an increased risk of heart attack or stroke.
Low values can have anemia or high blood loss due to an accident to the cause.
For more information about red blood cells
The following three values are complementary to the information about possible deviations from the standard values of red blood cells:
- MCV: the mean cellular erythrocyte volume (hematocrit/erythrocyte count)
The Parameter shows how big the red blood cells. With further measurements of different types of blood can be distinguished poverty, for example, an iron or folic acid deficiency.
- MCH: the mean cellular hemoglobin (amount of Hemoglobin/erythrocyte count)
This size says to the doctor, how much the red blood pigment of the red blood cells it contains. Alcoholics tend to have elevated MCH. Low MCH indicates you may have an iron deficiency.
- MCHC: Mean cell hemoglobin concentration (hemoglobin concentration/hematocrit)
The value indicates the hemoglobin concentration in the total volume of red blood cells. The MCHC is too high, may be a disease of the red blood cells (Spherocytosis) before. Too low values often come from a lack of iron.
Conventional reference values of the small blood picture
|Value||Reference Range Man||Reference Range Women|
|Hb||13.5-17.5& nbsp;g/dl||12.0-16.0& nbsp;g/dl|
|MCV||80.0-96.0& nbsp;fl||80.0-96.0& nbsp;fl|
|MCH||28.0-33.0& nbsp;pg||28.0-33.0& nbsp;pg|
|MCHC||32.0-36.0& nbsp;g/dl||32.0-36.0& nbsp;g/dl|
You need to know about reference values
The blood values have standard areas in which they should move. They differ between women and men. For the red blood pigment around the reference value in women is almost two percentage points lower than men’s. The doctor neglected these differences, diagnosed it incorrectly, a blood poverty, when none is present.
Age is another factor that determines the reference range. The values of infants are dependent on size and weight and usually higher than in adults.
It is important to know that there are two different units that constitute the blood values
- Conventional unit: especially in the old länder use traditionally this measurement.
- SI units (Système International d'unités): This size is particularly in the new länder and the international space common. In studies, it is a common unit, since it leads to a better international comparability.
Misunderstandings and wrong diagnoses
According to Clemens Wendtner, it is very important that Doctors note the unit of measurement in order to avoid misunderstandings and wrong diagnoses. A value is outside of the reference range, this is by no means a sign of a serious disease. He should, however, be clarified by the doctor.
Large Blood Image
The large blood adds to the small blood picture, the so-called differential blood count. The differential blood picture takes the components of the leukocytes, the immune system is responsible, under the microscope.
The leukocytes (white blood cells) are made up of monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes. You will be given in the blood, respectively, in absolute and relative (percentages) frequencies and are for adult men and women are equal.
Differential blood picture
- Mono (abs)/Mono%: monocytes
The monocytes protect the immune system by capturing pathogens and other immune cells to activate. The body overcomes bacterial infections or to recover from various diseases, has increased the value.
- Lympho (abs)/Lympho%: lymphocytes
The detection of too many lymphocytes in the blood points also to an immune reaction of the body. Many kinds are distinguished. A Patient is suffering from HIV, are lymphocytes, the CD4-positive T -, also helper T-cells are reduced.
Granulocytes are divided into three types, all of which are in the blood appear in the image:
1. Neutro (abs)/Neutro%: neutrophils (granulocytes)
These granulocytes are very valuable, as they are the first germ defense. The neutrophils increase in burns and poisoning. Leukemia or Vitamin B12 deficiency are disorders in which too little neutrophils in the body.
2. Eosino (abs)/Eosino%: Eosinophil (granulocyte)
Too many Eosinophils occur in allergic reactions to food or Asthma. Also in skin disorders and auto-immune you disorders are not uncommon. A low value may indicate a Burn-out.
3. Baso (abs)/Baso%: Basophils (granulocytes)
High values of basophils to allergies or a side effect of a Leukämieart close. Low values indicate a severe infection.
Conventional reference values for the differential blood picture
Subject-Specific Blood Image
In the case of suspicion of a specific organ disease physicians, liver clear, kidney or heart values, and electrolytes from. For the layman these parameters to the blood image. Strictly speaking, however, they are part of other categories, such as serum chemistry or coagulation.
If the doctor declines, two tubes of blood, is definitely the second best for the serum chemistry. Depending on the Patient and the suspected disease, the assessed values are different. For example, some values point to the people’s diseases, heart attack, lipid metabolism disorder or Diabetes.
- Heart attack
For the detection of a heart attack are the values of Troponin (Trop) , and creatine kinase (CK) was investigated. They also provide information on the damage to the heart. The blood values alone are not diagnostic of a heart attack but. To make a definite diagnosis, you need to add the typical symptoms such as chest tightness (Angina Pectoris) and ECG examination.
- Fat metabolism disorder
Many patients are shocked by the high cholesterol levels. In principle, it gives information about the stability of the cell membrane. He should be Healthy and not higher than 240 mg/dl, to avoid damage to the vessels.
But there are also "gutes" Cholesterol, the HDL-cholesterol. It even protects against cardiovascular disease. It should be at least higher than 40 mg/dl.
Bad is the LDL cholesterol, the "böse" Cholesterol. Healthy persons should have less than 160 mg/dl in your blood.
To diagnose the sugar disease Diabetes, measure Doctors the glucose value in the fasting state. The ideal value is between 70-100 mg/dl. From 125 mg/dl suspected Diabetes.
The increased sugar but it needs to be over a longer period of time in a controlled manner. This allows the HbA1c-value statements. It shows the average glucose value over the past three months. Normally it should be between three and six percent. At higher values, it is critical.
In principle, the blood picture gives a first glimpse of what could be wrong with the patient. Many diseases, such as cancer of the colon, but will not be diagnosed by a simple blood test.
“One should always lead from several areas of diagnostic steps together,” explains Clemens Wendtner. Only a holistic picture of the patient allows a safe diagnosis.
Since the blood picture is very complex, you should discuss the Patient, his values, his doctor and in case of uncertainty, ask. To press a piece of paper in the Hand and to send it home, is probably the wrong way to go.